APA Style Guide
Works Cited or a Bibliography at the end of your paper lets people know where you found your information and allows you to give credit to ideas and quotations you've used in your work. Be sure to check with your teacher/instructor as to which Style Guide to follow.
Citing Print Sources
Author (Last name, First name). (Year). Title. Place: Publisher.
Speck, D.C. (1998). The pleasure of the crown. Burnaby, BC, Canada: Talonbooks.
Book With 2 Or 3 Authors
Foster, B.C., & Tisdell, C.A. (1986). Economics in Canadian society. Toronto, ON, Canada: Wiley.
Book With An Editor
Treat, J.W. (Ed.). (1996). Contemporary Japan and popular culture. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Essay Or Chapter In A Book
Keating, N.C. (1992). Older rural Canadians. In D.A. Hay (Ed.), Rural sociology in Canada (pp. 134-154). Toronto, ON, Canada: Oxford University Press.
Signed Article Daily Newspaper
Staples, S. (2005, December 8). A 'quantum' leap in communication. Ottawa Citizen, pp. A1, A10.
Citing Electronic Sources
Author (Date or "n.d" if not dated). Title of document. (if given). Retrieved from <URL>
Anderson, D. (2002, May 1). Social constructionism and MOOs. Retrieved from http://sites.unc.edu/~daniel/social_constructionism
Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from <URL>
Electronic Journal Article (with Digital Object Identifier [DOI])
Herbst-Damm, K. L. & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-618.104.22.168
Electronic Journal Article (when DOI is not available)
Wissink, J.A. (2000). Techniques of smoking cessation. Adolescent Medicine, 2, 15-22. Retrieved from <URL>
York, G. (2003, June 9). Chinese waters rising higher. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from <URL>
P. Z. Myers (2007, January 22). The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partioning your mind [Web log post] Retrieved from <URL>
Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Psychology Wiki: <URL>
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2006, October 13). Understanding autism [Show 54]. Shrink Rap Radio. Podcast retrieved from <URL>
Video Weblog Post (YouTube)
Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved from <URL>
Citing Other Sources
Lecturer, A. (Date). Lecture number: Title of lecture [Format]. Retrieved from <URL>
Etches-Johnson, A. (2007). Lecture 1: Library research for communication studies [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from <http://library.mcmaster.ca/instruction/CMST1B03_Library_Session.pdf>
lang, k. d. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.
Film Or Video Recording
American Psychological Association (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from <URL>
Cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture as a personal communication and refer to it only in the body of your essay.
(P. Smith, personal communication, November, 16, 2002)
This guide is based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2010). The examples above are from the APA Style Guide by McMaster University Library and are used with permission.